How Do Robots Work?

 How Do Robots Work?

Autonomous Robots(Independent robots)

Independent robots are capable of operating completely autonomously and without the intervention of a human operator. These typically necessitate more intensive programming but allow robots to replace humans in dangerous, mundane, or otherwise impossible tasks ranging from bomb disposal to deep-sea travel to factory automation. Independent robots have proven to be the most disruptive to society, as they both eliminate jobs and open up new opportunities for growth.

Non-Autonomous Robots(Dependent robots)

Dependent robots are non-autonomous robots that interact with humans to supplement and enhance their existing actions. This is a relatively new form of technology that is constantly being expanded into new applications, but advanced prosthetics controlled by the human mind are one type of dependent robot that has been realized.

In 2018, Johns Hopkins APL created a famous example of a dependent robot for Johnny Matheny, a patient whose arm was amputated above the elbow. Matheny was fitted with a modular prosthetic limb so that researchers could observe its use over time. Electromyography, or signals sent from his amputated limb that control the prosthesis, is used to control the MPL. Matheny improved his control of the MPL over time, and the signals sent from his amputated limb became smaller and less variable, resulting in more accuracy in its movements and allowing Matheny to perform tasks as delicate as playing the piano.

What Are the Primary Elements of a Robot?

Robots are designed to provide solutions to a wide range of needs and serve a variety of functions; as a result, they require a wide range of specialized components to complete these tasks.


  • Control System: the high-level CPU that directs a robot's task.
  • Sensors: a component that generates electrical signals that allow a robot to interact with its surroundings.
  • Actuators: are the motor components that drive a robot's movement.
  • Power Supply: the battery that powers a robot.
  • End Effectors: A robot's exterior features that allow it to complete a task.
However, there are several components that are essential to the construction of every robot, such as a power source or a central processing unit. In general, robotics components fall into five categories:

Control System

Computation encompasses all of the components that comprise a robot's central processing unit, also known as its control system. Control systems are programmed to instruct a robot on how to use its specific components, in a manner similar to how the human brain sends signals throughout the body to complete a specific task. These tasks could range from minimally invasive surgery to assembly line packing.


Sensors provide stimuli to a robot in the form of electrical signals, which the controller processes and allows the robot to interact with the outside world. Video cameras that act as eyes, photoresistors that react to light, and microphones that act as ears are all common sensors found in robots. These sensors enable the robot to capture its surroundings and process the most logical conclusion based on the current situation, as well as relay commands to the additional components.



A device is considered a robot if it has a movable frame or body. Actuators are the components in charge of this movement. These components are made up of motors that receive control system signals and move in tandem to perform the movement required to complete the assigned task. Actuators can be made of a variety of materials, such as metal or elastic, and are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuators) or oil (hydraulic actuators), but they are available in a variety of formats to best fulfil their specialized roles.

Power Supply

Robots, like the human body, require power in order to function. Stationary robots, such as those found in factories, may be powered by an AC wall outlet, but they are more commonly powered by an internal battery. Most robots use lead-acid batteries due to their safety and long shelf life, while others may use the smaller but more expensive silver-cadmium variety. When designing a robot's power supply, safety, weight, replaceability, and lifecycle are all important factors to consider.

Pneumatic power from compressed gases, solar power, hydraulic power, flywheel energy storage organic garbage through anaerobic digestion and nuclear power are all potential power sources for future robotic development.

Final Effectors

End effectors are the physical, usually external components that enable robots to complete their tasks. Factory robots frequently have interchangeable tools such as paint sprayers and drills, surgical robots may have scalpels, and other types of robots can be built with gripping claws or even hands for tasks such as deliveries, packing, bomb diffusion, and much more.


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